This is a page under construction and material will be added as it becomes availible. That material will be devided into two catagories. The first catagory will be guns who like the muzzle loader took loose powder and ball or bullet. The second catagory will be guns who took a specific cartridge an example being the needlefire guns. 

    First we will start out with a look at the developments of Mr. Beatus Béringer. We have a contemporary book which refers to his developments. The book of Illustrious Mechanics by Edward Foucaud of 1846 is reproduced here.

The following article first appeared in the Sept. 1985 issue of The black powder Report.